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Pay & Leave Reference Materials

Handbook on Alternative Work Schedules

The information in this handbook is guidance. Where requirements are stated, we have cited law or regulation. Also see Negotiating Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules.

Introduction

The purpose of this handbook is to provide a framework for Federal agencies to consult in establishing alternative work schedules and to provide additional information to assist agencies in administering such programs.

This handbook, with its appendices, provides detailed information on the administration of flexible and compressed work schedules, jointly referred to as alternative work schedules or AWS. However, this handbook does not cover every situation that may arise under an alternative work schedule or other work scheduling options available under 5 U.S.C. 6101. Moreover, since AWS programs for bargaining unit employees are established by negotiated agreements, bargaining unit employees and their supervisors and managers should consult the applicable collective bargaining agreement for its AWS provisions.

Although the decision to establish an AWS program is at the discretion of the agency head, this discretion is subject to the obligation to negotiate with the exclusive representative(s) of bargaining unit employees. Consequently, references in the following pages to actions that agencies may take in implementing AWS programs should not be construed as authorizing unilateral action where bargaining unit employees are concerned.

Note 1:

Terms are defined in the definitions section. Readers unfamiliar with the terminology of alternative work schedules will find it helpful to review these definitions.

Note 2:

For information on the labor relations aspects of establishing and terminating alternative work schedules, see the Labor-Management Relations Guidance Bulletin, "Negotiating Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules," July 1995, OLRWP-12, which can be downloaded from OPM ONLINE, (202) 606-4800.

Under 5 U.S.C. 6122, a flexible work schedule includes designated hours (core hours) and days when an employee must be present for work. A flexible work schedule also includes designated hours during which an employee may elect to work in order to complete the employee's basic (non-overtime) work requirement.

Under 5 U.S.C. 6121(5), a compressed work schedule means that an employee's basic work requirement for each pay period is scheduled (by the agency) for less than 10 workdays. See the definition and requirements for regularly scheduled work in 5 CFR 610.102 and 5 CFR 610.111(d).

Compressed work schedules are always fixed schedules. (See Comptroller General report B-179810, December 4, 1979.) Another difference between flexible and compressed work schedules is that an employee on a flexible work schedule may be credited with a maximum of 8 hours towards the employee's basic work requirement on a holiday or Sunday (see 5 U.S.C. 6124 and the definition of Sunday work in 5 CFR 550.103), whereas the number of holiday or Sunday hours for an employee on a compressed work schedule is the number of hours regularly scheduled for the employee to work on that day if not for the holiday (see 5 U.S.C. 6128(c) and (d)).

There is no authority to establish hybrid work schedules that borrow selectively from the authority for flexible work schedules and the authority for compressed work schedules in an effort to create a hybrid work schedule program providing unauthorized benefits for employees or agencies. See Comptroller General report B-179810, December 4, 1979, and 50 FLRA No. 28, February 23, 1995. However, it should be noted that some forms of flexible work schedules (e.g., maxiflex) allow work to be compressed in fewer than 10 workdays in a biweekly pay period.

Authority and Responsibilities

  1. Section 6133 of title 5, United States Code, grants the Office of Personnel Management authority to-
    1. promulgate regulations necessary for the administration of AWS programs,
    2. provide educational material and technical assistance relating to AWS programs, and
    3. conduct periodic reviews of AWS programs established by agencies.
  2. It is the agencies' responsibility to determine whether to establish AWS programs; how to comply with the spirit of the President's memoranda of July 11, 1994, and June 21, 1996, on providing family-friendly work arrangements in the executive branch; negotiate with exclusive representatives when appropriate; administer the programs efficiently; and ensure that the AWS programs do not cause an adverse agency impact. (See section 7c, below.)
  3. Agencies wishing to establish flexible or compressed work schedules permitted under 5 U.S.C. 6122 and/or 5 U.S.C. 6127 do not need OPM approval.

Scope

Under subchapter II of chapter 61 of title 5, United States Code, AWS programs may apply to employees of any executive agency (excluding the U.S. Postal Service), any military department, the Government Printing Office, or the Library of Congress.

Exceptions

Nothing in the AWS program should be interpreted as diminishing the authority of an organization using nonstandard work schedules under 5 U.S.C. 6101 to continue to operate under those schedules with their applicable premium pay entitlements. (A "nonstandard work schedule" includes any schedule in which full-time employees work other than the standard schedule of 8 hours per day and 5 days per week in an administrative workweek. Such schedules include first 40-hour tours of duty, work schedules for employees receiving annual premium pay for regularly scheduled standby duty or administratively uncontrollable overtime, work schedules for employees receiving availability pay, and any schedule in which employees work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.)

Policy/Guidance

  1. AWS programs have the potential to enable managers and supervisors to meet their program goals while, at the same time, allowing employees to be more flexible in scheduling their personal activities. As employees gain greater control over their time, they can, for example, balance work and family responsibilities more easily, become involved in volunteer activities, and take advantage of educational opportunities. The employee benefits provided by AWS programs also are useful recruitment and retention tools.
  2. The President's memorandum of July 11, 1994, "Expanding Family-Friendly Work Arrangements in the Executive Branch," directed the heads of all executive agencies to establish a program to encourage and support the expansion of flexible family-friendly work arrangements. The President's memorandum of June 21, 1996, "Implementing Federal Family Friendly Work Arrangements," directed the heads of all executive agencies to review their personnel practices and develop a plan of action to provide their employees flexible hours that will enable employees to schedule their work and meet the needs of their families.
  3. An agency may determine the general policy, as well as guidelines, instructions, and procedures providing for the establishment of AWS programs in its headquarters and field activities.
  4. An agency may establish any number of AWS programs.
  5. The suspension of premium pay and scheduling provisions of title 5, United States Code, and the overtime pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended (FLSA), as specified in 5 U.S.C. 6123 and 6128, apply only to organizational units participating in an AWS program. All other provisions of title 5 and the FLSA remain in effect for nonparticipating organizations.

Procedures for Establishing Alternative Work Schedules

  1. Bargaining unit employees may participate in an AWS program only under the terms provided in a negotiated agreement (5 U.S.C. 6130(a)(1) and (2)). Therefore, an agency wishing to establish such a program for these employees must negotiate the establishment and terms of the program with the exclusive representative of the bargaining unit.
  2. In an unorganized unit, a majority of affected employees must vote to be included in a CWS program. (See 5 U.S.C. 6127(b).) Agencies may unilaterally install FWSprograms in unorganized units. For FWS programs, there is no requirement for a vote of affected employees.
  3. If the head of an agency determines that a proposed AWS schedule will have an adverse impact on the agency, the agency may not establish such a schedule ( 5 U.S.C. 6131(a)(1)). If the agency and the union representing bargaining unit employees reach impasse over this determination, the impasse must be presented to the Federal Service Impasses Panel for resolution ( 5 U.S.C. 6131(c)(2)(A)).
  4. Adverse agency impact is defined as-
    • a reduction of an agency's productivity,
    • a diminished level of services furnished to the public, or
    • an increase in the cost of agency operations (other than an administrative cost to process the establishment of an AWS program). (See 5 U.S.C. 6131(b).)

Procedures for Terminating Alternative Work Schedules

If the head of an agency finds that a particular AWS schedule has had an "adverse agency impact," the agency must promptly determine not to continue the schedule ( 5 U.S.C. 6131(a)(2)). If establishment of the AWS schedule was negotiated, the agency may reopen the agreement to seek its termination ( 5 U.S.C. 6131(c)(3)). If an impasse results, the dispute goes to the Federal Service Impasses Panel, which will determine within 60 days whether the agency's determination is supported by evidence. If it is, the Panel must act in favor of the agency. See 5 U.S.C. 6131(c)(3)(B) and (C). The AWS schedule may not be terminated until agreement is reached or the Panel acts. (See 5 U.S.C. 6106 and 6131(a)(3)(D).)

Special Procedures for Time Accounting

  1. General Remarks
    1. The requirements for time accounting applicable to Federal civilian employees are found in part I of chapter 3 of Title 6 of the General Accounting Office (GAO) Policy and Procedures Manual for Guidance of Federal Agencies. Before establishing a time accounting system for use with an AWS program, agencies are encouraged to review GAO's guidance.
    2. Agencies wishing to participate in an AWS program must establish a time accounting method that provides the supervisor with "affirmative" or personal knowledge of each employee's entitlement to pay by showing the number of hours of duty, attendance, and the nature and length of absences. (See 5 CFR 610.404.)
    3. When a supervisor cannot approve from personal knowledge the entitlement to pay for an employee on an alternative work schedule, there are a number of time accounting options available that may be used to ensure adequate controls. Examples are provided in paragraph "c" below.
  2. Timekeeping
    1. No specific form of timekeeping is appropriate in all situations. Rather, each organization should examine its own particular needs and make its selection based upon its needs. GAO no longer prescribes methods for accounting for time.
  3. Examples of Possible Time Accounting Methods
    1. Work Report System. A portion of the Time and Attendance Report form used in many organizations may be set aside to record arrival and departure times, as well as any other exceptions to the normal workday.
    2. Sign-in/sign-out sheets. Each employee is required to enter his or her name, time of arrival and departure, and other exceptions to the normal workday.
    3. Automatic Time Recording Equipment. These systems may be used for flexible work schedule programs in Washington, DC, and elsewhere. (See 5 U.S.C. 6125.)
    4. Work output assessment. For employees permitted to telecommute, supervisors determine the reasonableness of the work output for the time spent and also make occasional telephone calls or visits during the employee's scheduled work time.

Changes in Payroll Procedures and Personnel Policies

The introduction of an AWS program may necessitate changes in payroll procedures, including computer programs. For example, schedules that allow for the use of credit hours may require changes in time and attendance cards or additional records to account for each employee's credit hours. Agencies may permit the accumulation and use of credit hours or overtime hours in fractions of an hour.

Seasonal Schedules

If they so desire, agencies may implement AWS programs only for certain periods or seasons of the year. Generally, there are two reasons for such seasonal implementation:

  1. The agency's mission and functions are seasonal in nature; or
  2. The agency determines that, though an AWS program for the entire year would not be feasible, it would be possible from the perspective of the agency's mission, and of substantial benefit to its employees, to implement such a schedule for a certain period(s) of the year.

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Definitions

The definitions in this handbook apply only to Alternative Work Schedules.

Agency
Any executive agency or military department (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 105 and 102, respectively), the Government Printing Office, and the Library of Congress.
Alternative work schedules (AWS)
Both flexible work schedules and compressed work schedules.
Basic work requirement
The number of hours, excluding overtime hours, an employee is required to work or to account for by charging leave, credit hours, excused absence, holiday hours, compensatory time off, or time off as an award.
Biweekly pay period
The 2-week period for which an employee is scheduled to perform work.
Collective bargaining, collective bargaining agreement, and exclusive representative
These terms have the same meanings given in 5 U.S.C. 7103(a)(12), (8), and (16), respectively, in the case of any unit covered by chapter 71 of title 5, United States Code. In the case of any other unit, the definition of these terms corresponds to those applicable under the personnel system covering that unit.
Compressed work schedule (CWS)
  1. in the case of a full-time employee, an 80-hour biweekly basic work requirement that is scheduled by an agency for less than 10 workdays; and
  2. in the case of a part-time employee, a biweekly basic work requirement of less than 80 hours that is scheduled by an agency for less than 10 workdays and that may require the employee to work more than 8 hours in a day. (See 5 U.S.C. 6121(5).)
Core hours
The time periods during the workday, workweek, or pay period that are within the tour of duty during which an employee covered by a flexible work schedule is required by the agency to be present for work. (See 5 U.S.C. 6122(a)(1).)
Credit hours
Those hours within a flexible work schedule that an employee elects to work in excess of his or her basic work requirement so as to vary the length of a workweek or workday.
Employee
Has the meaning given that term in 5 U.S.C. 2105.
Flexible hours (also referred to as "flexible time bands")
The times during the workday, workweek, or pay period within the tour of duty during which an employee covered by a flexible work schedule may choose to vary his or her times of arrival to and departure from the work site consistent with the duties and requirements of the position. (See 5 U.S.C. 6122(a)(2).)
Flexible work schedule (FWS)
A work schedule established under 5 U.S.C. 6122, that-
  1. in the case of a full-time employee, has an 80-hour biweekly basic work requirement that allows an employee to determine his or her own schedule within the limits set by the agency; and
  2. in the case of a part-time employee, has a biweekly basic work requirement of less than 80 hours that allows an employee to determine his or her own schedule within the limits set by the agency.
Flexitour
A type of flexible work schedule in which an employee is allowed to select starting and stopping times within the flexible hours. Once selected, the hours are fixed until the agency provides an opportunity to select different starting and stopping times.
Gliding schedule
A type of flexible work schedule in which a full-time employee has a basic work requirement of 8 hours in each day and 40 hours in each week, may select a starting and stopping time each day, and may change starting and stopping times daily within the established flexible hours.
Maxiflex schedule
A type of flexible work schedule that contains core hours on fewer than 10 workdays in the biweekly pay period and in which a full-time employee has a basic work requirement of 80 hours for the biweekly pay period, but in which an employee may vary the number of hours worked on a given workday or the number of hours each week within the limits established for the organization.
Organization
An entity within an agency that is headed by an official with the authority to establish tours of duty.
Overtime hours
When used with respect to FWS programs, refers to all hours in excess of 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a week that are officially ordered in advance, but does not include credit hours. With respect to CWS programs, overtime hours refers to any hours in excess of those specified hours for full-time employees that constitute the compressed work schedule. For part-time employees, overtime hours are hours in excess of the compressed work schedule for a day (but must be more than 8 hours) or, for a week (but must be more than 40 hours).
Prevailing rate employee
Defined in 5 U.S.C. 5342(2). These employees are also known as Federal wage employees.
Tour of duty
Under a flexible work schedule means the limits set by an agency within which an employee must complete his or her basic work requirement. Under a compressed work schedule or other fixed schedule, tour of duty is synonymous with basic work requirement.
Variable day schedule
A type of flexible work schedule containing core hours on each workday in the week and in which a full-time employee has a basic work requirement of 40 hours in each week of the biweekly pay period, but in which an employee may vary the number of hours worked on a given workday within the week within the limits established for the organization.
Variable week schedule
A type of flexible work schedule containing core hours on each workday in the biweekly pay period and in which a full-time employee has a basic work requirement of 80 hours for the biweekly pay period, but in which an employee may vary the number of hours worked on a given workday or the number of hours each week within the limits established for the organization.
Work unit
An entity located in one place with a specific mission, with homogeneous procedures or technology, and headed by a supervisor or manager authorized to approve time and attendance reports and approve leave.

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Flexible Work Schedules (FWS)

Basic Work Requirement

The basic work requirement of a flexible work schedule is the number of hours, excluding overtime hours, an employee must work or otherwise account for by leave, credit hours, holiday hours, excused absence, compensatory time off, or time off as an award.

  1. A full-time employee must work 80 hours/biweekly pay period, or a multiple of this requirement, as determined by the agency head. Agencies may also establish daily or weekly basic work requirements.
  2. A part-time employee works fewer hours than a full-time employee within a specified period of time, as determined by the agency head consistent with 5 U.S.C. 3401 through 3408 and 5 CFR part 340.

Tour of Duty

  1. In general, the tour of duty comprises all hours and days for which flexible and core hours have been designated, including those days within a maxiflex schedule for which only flexible hours are scheduled. (See Appendix B.) The tour of duty defines the limits within which an employee must complete his or her basic work requirement.

    Note:

    Overtime hours are not included in the definition of a tour of duty for employees under AWS.

  2. The types of FWS vary significantly. Agencies have the authority to establish flexible and core hours to meet their needs. Agencies are encouraged to delegate this authority to the lowest practicable organizational levels. (Appendix B suggests some possible AWS schedules. These models are not all-inclusive; they illustrate alternatives that agencies may adapt to fit their specific needs.)
  3. Temporary changes in the tour of duty may be made under the terms of a negotiated agreement, if applicable, or agency policy.

Credit Hours

  1. Credit hours may be worked only by employees covered by FWS programs. If the agency's FWS plan permits credit hours, the agency may approve an employee's request to work credit hours to be applied to another workday, workweek, or biweekly pay period. Not all FWS programs provide for credit hours.
  2. Credit hours are worked at the election of the employee consistent with agency policies; they are distinguished from overtime hours in that they are not officially ordered and approved in advance by management. Credit hours must be worked within an employee's non-overtime tour of duty (see subsection b(1) above) .
  3. An employee's right to use earned credit hours is governed by policies established under an agency FWS program. See 5 U.S.C. 6122(a) .
  4. When an employee uses credit hours, such hours are to be counted as a part of the basic work requirement to which they are applied. An employee is entitled to his or her rate of basic pay for credit hours, and credit hours may not be used by an employee to create or increase entitlement to overtime pay.
  5. An agency may place a limit on the number of credit hours an employee may earn during a biweekly pay period. An agency also may limit the number of credit hours an employee may earn on a daily or weekly basis. Further, a time frame may be set within which employees may use credit hours after they have been earned. Section 6126(a) of title 5, United States Code, limits the number of credit hours an employee may carry over from a biweekly pay period to a succeeding biweekly pay period to 24 hours for a full-time employee (one-fourth of a part-time employee's biweekly work requirement). An agency may further limit the number of credit hours carried forward from one biweekly pay period to the next.
  6. When an employee is no longer subject to an FWS program, the employee must be paid for accumulated credit hours at his or her current rate of pay. Payment for accumulated credit hours is limited to a maximum of 24 hours for a full-time employee. For a part-time employee, the limit is one-quarter of the employee's biweekly work requirement. (See 5 U.S.C. 6126(b).) An employee may not be compensated for credit hours for any other reason (e.g., excess, unused credit hours that cannot be carried forward into the next pay period). (See 5 U.S.C. 6123(b).)
  7. An employee may not be paid overtime pay, Sunday premium pay, or holiday premium pay for credit hours. Credit hours must always be part of the employee's non-overtime basic work requirement. Sunday premium pay may be paid only when an employee works on Sunday, with the exception of paid leave and excused absence, and then only when permitted by law. Holiday premium pay may be paid only for work on a holiday. See 5 U.S.C. 6121(3) and 5 U.S.C. 5546(a) and (b).
  8. Whether an employee is entitled to night pay for credit hours on the day on which such hours are earned (worked) depends on the rules for night pay. (See 5 U.S.C. 6123(c) and section f. below.)

    Note:

    Credit hours must be considered daytime hours whenever possible.

  9. In the event of an agency closure or early dismissal before the beginning of an employee's daily tour of duty, an employee may retain credit hours that have not been used, to the extent permitted by law and regulation (e.g., full-time employees may not carry over more than 24 credit hours to a new biweekly pay period). If an early dismissal occurs during or after the employee's daily tour of duty, the employee will be charged for credit hours that have already been used.
  10. Agencies may permit Senior Executive Service (SES) members to participate in FWS programs; however, SES members may not accumulate credit hours. (See 5 CFR 610.408.)

    Note:

    See "Travel" for information about credit hours and travel.

Overtime Work Determinations

  1. For employees under FWS programs, overtime hours are all hours of work in excess of 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a week which are officially ordered in advance by management. (See the definition of "overtime hours" at 5 U.S.C. 6121(6). The requirement that overtime hours be officially ordered in advance also applies to nonexempt employees under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). Employees on flexible work schedules may not earn overtime pay as a result of including "suffered or permitted" hours (under the FLSA) as hours of work. See 5 CFR 551.401(a)(2).
  2. Management may order an employee who is covered by an FWS program to work hours that are in excess of the number of hours the employee planned to work on a specific day. If the hours ordered to be worked are not in excess of 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a week at the time they are performed, the agency, at its discretion, may permit or require the employee to-
    1. take time off from work on a subsequent workday for a period of time equal to the number of extra hours of work ordered;
    2. complete his or her basic work requirement as scheduled and count the extra hours of work ordered as credit hours; or
    3. complete his or her basic work requirement as scheduled if the agency policy permits. This will result in an employee entitlement to be compensated at the rate of basic pay for any hours of work equal to or less than 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a week. An employee also would be entitled to overtime pay for hours of work ordered in excess of 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a week.

Compensatory Time Off

  1. "Compensatory time off" is time off on an hour-for-hour basis in lieu of overtime pay. For employees under FWS, the overtime hours of work may be regularly scheduled or irregular or occasional. An agency may grant compensatory time off in lieu of overtime pay at the request of the employee (including prevailing rate employees and nonexempt employees) under a flexible work schedule. (See 5 U.S.C. 6123(a).)
  2. Compensatory time off, in lieu of overtime pay, may not be required for-
    1. any prevailing rate employee;
    2. any employee who is nonexempt from the FLSA; or
    3. any FLSA-exempt employee whose rate of basic pay is equal to or less than the rate for GS-10, step 10.
  3. Mandatory compensatory time off, in lieu of overtime pay for irregular or occasional overtime work, may be ordered for employees who are FLSA exempt and whose rate of basic pay exceeds the rate for GS-10, step 10. However, this does not apply to prevailing rate employees who are FLSA exempt. The rate of basic pay for GS-10, step 10, includes any applicable special rate of pay for law enforcement officers or special pay adjustment for law enforcement officers under section 403 or 404 of the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-509), respectively; an applicable locality-based comparability payment under 5 U.S.C. 5304; and any applicable special rate of pay under 5 U.S.C. 5305 or similar provision of law).

Night Pay (General Schedule and Other Employees Covered by Section 5545(a) of Title 5, United States Code)

  1. If an employee's tour of duty includes 8 or more hours available for work during daytime hours (i.e., between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.), he or she is not entitled to night pay even though he or she voluntarily elects to work during hours for which night pay is normally required (i.e., between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.).
  2. Agencies must pay night pay for those hours that must be worked between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. to complete an 8-hour daily tour of duty.
  3. An employee is entitled to night pay for any nonovertime work performed between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. during designated core hours.

Note:

An employee who performs regularly scheduled overtime work at night is also entitled to night pay.

Night Differential (Prevailing Rate Employees)

Night differential will not be paid solely because a prevailing rate employee elects to work credit hours, or elects a time of arrival or departure at a time of day when night differential is otherwise authorized, except that prevailing rate employees are entitled to night differential for regularly scheduled nonovertime work when a majority of the hours of a FWS schedule for a daily tour of duty occur during the night. (See 5 U.S.C. 5343(f) and 6123(c)(2).)

Holiday Pay (When No Work Is Performed)

  1. Under an FWS program, a full-time employee who is relieved or prevented from working on a day designated as a holiday (or an "in lieu of" holiday under 5 U.S.C. 6103(b) or section 3 of E.O. 11582) by Federal statute or Executive order is entitled to his or her rate of basic pay on that day for 8 hours. (See 5 U.S.C. 6124.)
  2. If a holiday falls on a day during a part-time FWS employee's tour of duty and the employee is relieved or prevented from working on that day, the employee is entitled to his or her rate of basic pay for the typical, average, or scheduled number of hours of work for that day toward his or her basic work requirement (not to exceed 8 hours). If a part-time FWS employee has maintained a reasonably consistent schedule for several pay periods, the employee may be paid for the number of hours he or she would have worked had the holiday not relieved or prevented the employee from working (not to exceed 8 hours). If a part-time employee has no typical schedule, the agency may average the number of hours worked in prior weeks on days corresponding to the holiday to determine an employee's pay entitlement for that holiday (not to exceed 8 hours). (See 5 CFR 610.405.)

    A work schedule submitted in advance of the administrative work week also may be used by an agency as the basis for determining the number of hours to pay a part-time employee on a holiday. However, agencies should ensure that there is no abuse of entitlement. For example, an employee should not schedule more hours of work on a holiday than he or she has scheduled in prior weeks on days corresponding to the holiday.
  3. Determining "In Lieu of" Holidays when Holidays Fall on Nonworkdays
    1. Nonworkdays Other than Sunday. If a holiday falls on a nonworkday of the employee-except for holidays falling on a Sunday nonworkday-the employee's preceding workday will be the designated "in lieu of" holiday. (See 5 U.S.C. 6103(b).)
    2. Sunday Nonworkday. If the holiday falls on the Sunday nonworkday of an employee, the subsequent workday will be the employee's designated "in lieu of" holiday. (See section 3 of Executive Order 11582 of February 11, 1971.)
    3. Part-time employees. Part-time employees are not entitled to an "in lieu of" holiday when a holiday falls on a nonworkday for the employee. (See 5 CFR 610.405.)

Pay for Holiday Work

  1. A full-time employee under an FWSprogram who performs non-overtime work on a holiday (or a day designated as the "in lieu of" holiday under 5 U.S.C. 6103(b) or section 3 of E.O. 11582) is entitled to his or her rate of basic pay plus premium pay equal to his or her rate of basic pay for that holiday work. Holiday premium pay is limited to a maximum of 8 hours.

    Note:

    Agencies must designate the 8 holiday hours applicable to each FWS employee. The 8 hours designated as holiday hours must include all applicable core hours .

  2. An employee under an FWS program who works during non-overtime and non-holiday hours that are part of the employee's basic work requirement on a holiday is paid his or her rate of basic pay for those hours of work.

    Example: An employee who works 10 hours on a holiday (including 1 hour of overtime work ordered by a supervisor) and who has a 9-hour basic work requirement on that day would earn holiday premium pay for the 8 holiday hours designated by the agency, his or her rate of basic pay for 1 hour (within the basic work requirement), and 1 hour of overtime pay.
  3. A part-time employee under an FWS program is entitled to holiday premium pay only for work performed during his or her basic work requirement on a holiday (not to exceed 8 hours). A part-time employee, scheduled to work on a day designated as an "in lieu of" holiday for full-time employees under 5 U.S.C. 6103(b) or section 3 of E.O. 11582, is not entitled to holiday premium pay for work performed on that day. (See 5 CFR 610.405.)

Pay for Sunday Work

  1. A full-time employee who performs regularly scheduled nonovertime work, a part of which is performed on Sunday, is entitled to Sunday premium pay for the entire daily tour of duty, not to exceed 8 hours. It is possible for an employee to have two daily tours of duty that begin or end on the same Sunday.
  2. A full-time employee is entitled to Sunday premium pay for the entire daily tour of duty, up to 8 hours, based upon electing to work any flexible hours on a Sunday. However, an agency may preclude employees from working flexible hours on a Sunday. See Comptroller General opinion B-245772, May 7, 1992; 5 CFR 610.111(d); and section c.(7) above.
  3. A part-time employee is not entitled to Sunday premium pay. (See 5 U.S.C 5546(a) and 46 Comptroller General 337 (1966).)

Paid Time Off

  1. Paid time off during an employee's basic work requirement must be charged to the appropriate leave category, credit hours, compensatory time off, or to excused absence if warranted.
  2. There is no requirement that employees use flexible hours for medical or dental appointments or other personal matters if the employee wishes to charge this time to leave. To the extent permitted by the agency, an employee may choose to charge time off during flexible hours to an appropriate leave category or use credit hours when time off is scheduled during flexible hours in order to preserve leave.
  3. An employee may apply no more sick or annual leave to a given day than he or she is scheduled to work on that day. In organizations in which employees are not required to schedule their daily work hours in advance, agencies should develop policies to ensure that sick leave is not abused.

Excused Absence

  1. The head of an agency may grant excused absence with pay to employees covered by an FWS program under the same circumstances as excused absence would be granted to employees covered by other work schedules. For employees on a flexible work schedule, the amount of excused absence to be granted should be based on the employee's established basic work requirement in effect for the period covered by the excused absence.
  2. If an agency determines that excused absence should be granted to employees based upon individual patterns of arrival and departure, the following methods for discerning these patterns may be used:
    1. Constant Pattern of Arrival. The majority of employees tend to arrive within 5 to 10 minutes of the same time each day. Once a pattern has been established, it should be used as a reference point.
    2. Predominant Pattern of Arrival. If an employee maintains a schedule in which one particular arrival time predominates, this arrival time should be used to determine the amount of excused absence to be granted.
    3. Variable Pattern of Arrival. Where there is such variation in an employee's arrival time that there is no discernible pattern, the mathematical average of the employee's arrival time for the previous 2-week period may be computed and the average arrival time used as a reference for determining excused absence.
  3. When employees who would otherwise be required to report to work are excused from work because of an office closure due to a weather emergency or furlough, other employees who do not have a scheduled workday(s) during the office closure or furlough may not be granted another nonworkday. In Comptroller General opinion B-217080 (June 3, 1985), the Comptroller General determined that employees taking a day off under a flexible work schedule are in a non-pay status on those days. Therefore, if the agency is closed because of weather conditions, the employees have no entitlement to an additional day off.

Temporary Duty

When an employee covered by an FWS program is assigned to a temporary duty station using another schedule-either traditional or AWS-the agency may allow the employee to continue to use the schedule used at his or her permanent work site (if suitable) or require the employee to change the schedule to conform to operations at the temporary work site.

Travel

  1. When an Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)-exempt or nonexempt employee under an FWS program is in a travel status during the hours of his or her regularly scheduled administrative workweek, including regularly scheduled overtime hours, that time is considered to be hours of work and must be used for the purpose of overtime pay calculations, as applicable. See the definitions of "regularly scheduled administrative workweek" and "regularly scheduled" in 5 CFR 610.102. Note, however, that overtime hours are initially scheduled for work, not travel.
  2. Because time spent in a travel status outside regularly scheduled hours is not compensable in many cases (see paragraph (3), below), agencies must determine what constitutes regularly scheduled work for employees covered by an FWS program when they travel. Agencies must also determine the number of corresponding hours for an employee on a nonworkday under the FLSA overtime provisions in 5 CFR 551.422(a)(4). For both purposes, agencies may apply the guidance outlined under "Excused Absence," above. Also, see 5 CFR 610.111(d).
  3. For FLSA-exempt employees under flexible work schedules, hours of work for time spent in a travel status outside the regularly scheduled administrative workweek and away from the official duty station are determined in accordance with 5 CFR 550.112(g) or 5 U.S.C. 5544 (for prevailing rate employees). For nonexempt employees, the total number of hours of work for travel outside the regularly scheduled administrative workweek and away from the official duty station is determined by applying both 5 CFR 550.112(g) or 5 U.S.C. 5544 and 5 CFR 551.422. (See 5 CFR 551.401(h).)
  4. An agency may require an employee to follow a traditional fixed schedule (8 hours a day, 40 hours a week) during pay periods he or she travels.
  5. An employee may not earn credit hours for travel because travel in connection with Government work is not voluntary in nature. In other words, travel itself does not meet the definition of credit hours in 5 U.S.C. 6121(4), which provides that credit hours are hours within a flexible work schedule in excess of the employee's basic work requirement which the employee elects to work so as to vary the length of a workweek or a workday. If travel time creates overtime hours of work (see the previous paragraphs of this section, above) the employee must be compensated by payment of overtime pay or under the rules for granting or requiring compensatory time off.

Application of Flexible Work Schedules in Unorganized Units

Agencies may unilaterally install FWS programs in unorganized units. There is no requirement for a vote by affected employees.

Appeals to the Office of the Special Counsel (OSC)

  1. Within the guidelines established by the agency's FWS program, section 6132 of title 5, United States Code, protects an employee's right to elect a time of arrival or departure, to work or not to work credit hours, and/or to request or not to request compensatory time off in lieu of payment for overtime hours under an FWS program.
  2. Employees may contact the Office of Special Counsel (OSC) and file a complaint with that agency regarding allegations of coercion prohibited by 5 U.S.C. 6132. Violations of 5 U.S.C. 6132 are subject to investigation by the Office of Special Counsel as provided in 5 CFR part 1810.

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Compressed Work Schedules

Basic Work Requirement

The basic work requirement of a compressed work schedule is the number of hours, excluding overtime hours, an employee is required to work or to account for by charging leave or otherwise:

  1. A full-time employee is required to work 80 hours in a biweekly pay period. This work must be scheduled for fewer than 10 days in a biweekly pay period. (See 5 U.S.C. 6121(5)(A).)
  2. A part-time employee works fewer than 80 hours in a biweekly pay period. This work must be scheduled for fewer than 10 workdays in a biweekly pay period. (See 5 U.S.C. 6121(5)(B).)

Tour of Duty

The tour of duty for employees under a CWS program is defined by a fixed schedule established by the agency. See the definition of "compressed schedule" in 5 U.S.C. 6121(5), which states that the basic work requirement is scheduled for less than 10 work days. Also, see the definition of "regularly scheduled" in 5 CFR 610.102.

Compressed work schedules are arranged to enable employees to fulfill their basic work requirements in less than 10 days during the biweekly pay period. (Examples of these schedules may be found in Appendix C.) Although agencies may change or stagger the arrival and departure times of employees, there are no provisions for employee flexibility in reporting or quitting times under a CWS program.

Note:

Compressed work schedules are always fixed schedules. (See B-179810, Comptroller General's Report to the House Subcommittee on Compensation and Employee Benefits, Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, pg. 2, footnote 1, December 4, 1979. Also, see the definition of "compressed schedule" in 5 U.S.C. 6121(5) and 50 FLRA No. 28, February 23, 1995. )

Credit Hours

There is no legal authority for credit hours under a CWS program. The law provides for credit hours only for flexible work schedules. See 5 U.S.C. 6121(4).

Overtime Work

For a full-time employee under a CWS program who is exempt from the FLSA, overtime hours are all officially ordered and approved hours of work in excess of the compressed work schedule. For a full-time employee who is covered by the FLSA (non-exempt), overtime hours also include any hours worked outside the compressed work schedule that are "suffered or permitted." For a part-time employee, overtime hours are hours in excess of the compressed work schedule for a day (but must be more than 8 hours) or for a week (but must be more than 40 hours).

Compensatory Time Off

Employee requests for compensatory time off in lieu of overtime pay may be approved only for irregular or occasional overtime work by an employee (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5541(2)) or by a prevailing rate employee (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5342(a)(2)). Compensatory time off may not be approved for an SES member. Mandatory compensatory time off is limited to FLSA-exempt employees (who are not prevailing rate employees) whose rate of basic pay is greater than the rate for GS-10, step 10, and only in lieu of overtime pay for irregular or occasional overtime work. See 5 U.S.C. 5543(a)(2).

Night Pay (General Schedule and Other Employees Covered by 5 U.S.C. 5545(a))

The regular rules under 5 U.S.C. 5545(a) and 5 CFR 550.121 and 122 apply. An employee is entitled to night pay for regularly scheduled nightwork performed between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.

Night Differential (Prevailing Rate Employees)

The regular rules under 5 U.S.C. 5343(f) apply in determining the majority of hours for entitlement to night pay for prevailing rate employees.

Holiday Pay (When No Work Is Performed)

  1. A full-time employee on a CWS who is relieved or prevented from working on a day designated as a holiday (or an "in lieu of" holiday under 5 U.S.C. 6103(b) or (d) or section 3 of E.O. 11582) by Federal statute or Executive order is entitled to his or her rate of basic pay for the number of hours of the compressed work schedule on that day. (See 5 CFR 610.406(a).)
  2. If a holiday falls on a day during a part-time employee's scheduled tour of duty and the employee is relieved or prevented from working on that day, the employee is entitled to his or her rate of basic pay for the number of hours he or she normally would have been scheduled to work that day. (See 5 CFR 610.406(b).)
  3. Determining "in Lieu of" Holidays when Holidays Fall on Nonworkdays
    1. Nonworkdays Other than Sunday. Except as provided in subparagraphs (ii) and (iii) below, if a holiday falls on a nonworkday of the employee, the employee's preceding workday will be the designated "in lieu of" holiday. (See 5 U.S.C. 6103(b).)
    2. Sunday Nonworkday. Except as provided in subparagraph (iii) below, if the holiday falls on the Sunday nonworkday of an employee, the subsequent workday will be the employee's designated "in lieu of" holiday. (See section 3 of E.O. 11582.)
    3. Agency rules. Under 5 U.S.C. 6103(d), the head of an agency may prescribe rules under which a different "in lieu of" holiday is designated than would be required under 5 U.S.C. 6103(b), E.O. 11582, or the terms of any collective bargaining agreement, for full-time employees on compressed work schedules when the head of an agency determines that a different "in lieu of" holiday is necessary to prevent an "adverse agency impact." The term "adverse agency impact" is defined in 5 U.S.C. 6131(b).
    4. Under its authority to determine the administrative workweek (5 CFR 610.111), an agency may change an employee's schedule (and scheduled days off) for operational reasons. Schedule changes must be documented and communicated to employees in advance of the start of an administrative workweek except when the criteria in 5 CFR 610.121(a) apply. (Also, see 5 CFR 610.121(b)(2).)

Pay for Holiday Work

  1. A full-time employee under a CWS program who performs nonovertime work on a holiday (or a day designated as the "in lieu of" holiday under 5 U.S.C. 6103(b) or (d) or section 3 of E.O. 11582) is entitled to basic pay plus premium pay equal to his or her rate of basic pay for the work that is not in excess of the employee's compressed work schedulefor that day. (See 5 CFR 610.407.)

    Note:

    Since CWS schedules are fixed schedules, employees must not be required to move their regularly scheduled days off solely to avoid payment of holiday premium pay or to reduce the number of holiday hours included in the basic work requirement. See 5 U.S.C. 6101(a)(3)(E).

  2. A part-time employee under a CWS program is entitled to holiday premium pay only for work performed during his or her compressed work schedule on a holiday. A part-time employee scheduled to work on a day designated as an "in lieu of" holiday for full-time employees is not entitled to holiday premium pay for work performed on that day, since part-time employees are not entitled to "in lieu of" holidays. (See 5 CFR 610.406(b).)

Pay for Sunday Work

  1. A full-time employee who performs nonovertime work during a tour of duty, a part of which is performed on Sunday, is entitled to Sunday premium pay for his or her entire tour of duty on that day. (See 5 U.S.C. 6128(c).)
  2. A part-time employee is not entitled to premium pay for Sunday work. (See 5 U.S.C. 5546(a) and 46 Comptroller General 337 (1966).)

Paid Time Off

Paid time off during an employee's basic work requirement must be charged to sick or annual leave unless the employee used other paid leave or accumulated compensatory time off, or unless excused absence is approved.

Excused Absence

The head of an agency may grant excused absence with pay to employees covered by a CWS program under the same circumstances as excused absence would be granted to employees covered by other work schedules.

Temporary Duty

When an employee covered by a CWS program is assigned to a temporary duty station using another work schedule-either traditional or AWS-the agency may allow the employee to continue to use the schedule used at his or her permanent work site (if suitable) or require the employee to change the schedule to conform to operations at the temporary work site.

Travel

  1. When an Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)-exempt or nonexempt employee under a CWS program is in a travel status during the hours of his or her regularly scheduled administrative workweek, including regularly scheduled overtime hours, that time is considered to be hours of work and must be used for the purpose of overtime pay calculations, as applicable. Note, however, that overtime hours are initially scheduled for work, not travel.
  2. For employees under a CWS program, "regularly scheduled administrative workweek" means the compressed work schedule applicable to an employee and any regularly scheduled overtime work. An agency must also determine the number of corresponding hours for an employee on a nonworkday for the purpose of determining hours of work for travel under the FLSA overtime provisions in 5 CFR 551.422(a)(4). For this purpose, agencies may apply the guidance under "Excused Absence," above. Also, see 5 CFR 610.111(d).
  3. For FLSA-exempt employees under compressed work schedules, hours of work for time spent in a travel status outside the regularly scheduled administrative workweek and away from the official duty station is determined in accordance with 5 CFR 550.112(g) or 5 U.S.C. 5544 (for prevailing rate employees). For nonexempt employees, the total number of hours of work for travel outside the regularly scheduled administrative workweek and away from the official duty station is determined by applying both 5 CFR 550.112(g) or 5 U.S.C. 5544 and 5 CFR 551.422. (See 5 CFR 551.401(h).)
  4. An agency may require an employee to follow a traditional fixed schedule (8 hours a day and 40 hours a week) during pay periods he or she travels.

Application of Compressed Work Schedules in Unorganized Units

  1. Under 5 U.S.C. 6127, a compressed work schedule may not be established in an unorganized unit unless a majority of employees in the organization who would be included vote to be included. For purposes of this vote, a majority is obtained when the number of affirmative votes exceeds 50 percent of the number of employees and supervisors in the organization proposed for inclusion in a compressed work schedule. (If participation in the CWS program is voluntary for each employee, a vote is unnecessary because employees who elect not to participate are not included and are unaffected.)
  2. In organizations in which employees are exclusively represented by a labor organization, but in which certain employees (e.g., personnelists) are excluded from the bargaining unit, only those employees in the unit are bound by the terms of negotiations establishing a CWS program. Employees in the organization not in the unit are entitled to vote for or against inclusion in the schedule. All employees who would be affected by the outcome should have an opportunity to cast a vote, and the outcome of the vote is binding upon all employees except those exempted by management because of personal hardship.

Determining Hardships Under Compressed Work Schedules

  1. Section 6127(b)(2) of title 5, United States Code, requires that any employee for whom a compressed work schedule would impose a personal hardship be excluded from the schedule or be reassigned. Each agency should have a procedure for an employee to request exclusion from a CWS based on personal hardship. The agency must determine whether the CWS imposes a personal hardship.
  2. Both the law and its legislative history are silent with respect to the definition of "personal hardship." However, agencies should be sensitive to the possibility that a CWS could have an adverse effect on certain employees, particularly disabled employees and those who are responsible for the care of disabled family members or dependent children. Depending on the facts and circumstances in the individual case, other valid personal hardship situations may occur that could be grounds for excusing an employee from working under a CWS program.

Appeals to the Office of Special Counsel (OSC)

  1. Section 6132 of title 5, United States Code, protects an employee against coercion when voting for or against inclusion of his or her work unit in a CWS program and affirms the right of the employee to request, because of hardship, not to participate in a CWS program. (Also see 5 U.S.C. 6127(b).)
  2. Employees may contact the Office of Special Counsel (OSC) to file a complaint regarding allegations of coercion prohibited by 5 U.S.C. 6132. Violations of 5 U.S.C. 6132 are subject to investigation by the Special Counsel.

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Appendix A

A Comparison of Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules
 Flexible Work SchedulesCompressed Work Schedules
Basic Work Requirement The basic work requirement for a full-time employee is 80 hours in a biweekly pay period. Agencies may also establish daily or weekly work requirements. The agency head determines the number of hours a part-time employee must work in a specific period. Agencies may permit employees to complete their basic work requirement in less than 10 workdays. A full-time employee must work 80 hours in biweekly pay period and must be scheduled to work on fewer than 10 workdays. A part-time employee has a fixed schedule of fewer than 80 hours in a biweekly pay period and must be scheduled to work on fewer than 10 workdays.
Tour of Duty The tour of duty defines the limits within which an employee must complete his or her basic work requirement. The tour of duty is defined by the fixed compressed work schedule established by the agency.
Credit Hours Hours may be worked in excess of the basic work requirement at the option of the employee in order to vary the length of the workday or workweek. Not all FWS programs provide for credit hours. The law provides credit hours only for flexible work schedules. There is no legal authority for credit hours under a CWS program. See 5 U.S.C. 6121(4).
Overtime Work Overtime work consists of hours of work that are officially ordered in advance and in excess of 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a week, but does not include hours that are worked voluntarily, including credit hours, or hours that an employee is "suffered or permitted" to work which are not officially ordered in advance. (See 5 CFR 551.401(a)(2).) For a full-time employee, overtime work consists of all hours of work in excess of the established compressed work schedule. For a part-time employee, overtime work must be hours in excess of the compressed work schedule for the day (more than at least 8 hours) or for the week (more than at least 40 hours).
Compensatory Time Off An agency may, at the request of an employee, approve compensatory time off in lieu of overtime pay for non-SES employees. (See 5 U.S.C. 6123(a)(1).) Mandatory compensatory time off is limited to FLSA-exempt employees (who are not prevailing rate employees) whose rate of basic pay is greater than the rate for GS-10, step 10. (See 5 CFR 550.114(c).) Compensatory time off may be approved in lieu of overtime pay only for irregular or occasional overtime work by an "employee" as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5541(2) or by a prevailing rate employee as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5342(a)(2), but may not be approved for an SES member. Mandatory compensatory time off is limited to FLSA-exempt employees (who are not prevailing rate employees) whose rate of basic pay is greater than the rate for GS-10, step 10.
Night Pay For GS and other employees covered by 5 U.S.C. 5545(a), agencies must pay night pay for those hours that must be worked between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. to complete an 8-hour daily tour of duty. Agencies must also pay night pay for all designated core hours worked between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. and for any regularly scheduled overtime work between those hours. The regular rules governing entitlement to night pay, at 5 CFR 550.121 and 122, apply. (See 5 CFR 532.505 for prevailing rate employees.)
Pay for Holiday Work Holiday premium pay for nonovertime work is limited to a maximum of 8 hours in a day for full-time or part-time employees. A part-time employee scheduled to work on a day designated as an "in lieu of" holiday for full-time employees is not entitled to holiday premium pay for work performed on that day. Holiday premium pay for nonovertime work is limited to the number of hours normally scheduled for that day. A part-time employee scheduled to work on a day designated as an "in lieu of" holiday for full-time employees is not entitled to holiday premium pay for work performed on that day.
Pay for Sunday Work A full-time employee who performs regularly scheduled nonovertime work during a period of duty, part of which is performed on Sunday, is entitled to Sunday premium pay (25 percent of the rate of basic pay) for the entire period of work up to 8 hours. (See 5 CFR 550.171.) A part-time employee is not entitled to Sunday premium pay for Sunday work. (See 5 U.S.C 5546 (a), 46 Comp. Gen. 337 (1966), and 5 CFR.610.111(d).) A full-time employee who performs regularly scheduled non-overtime work during a period of duty, part of which is performed on Sunday, is entitled to Sunday premium pay (25 percent of the rate of basic pay) for the entire scheduled period of duty that day. (See 5 >U.S.C. 6128(c) and 5 CFR 610.111(d).) A part-time employee is not entitled to premium pay for Sunday work.
Holidays A full-time employee prevented from working on a holiday (or an "in lieu of" holiday) is entitled to pay for 8 hours for that day. A part-time employee prevented from working on a holiday is entitled to pay for the number of hours he or she would have worked but for the holiday, not to exceed 8 hours. When a holiday falls on a nonworkday of a part-time employee, there is no entitlement to pay for an "in lieu of" holiday. (See 5 U.S.C. 6124.) A full-time employee prevented from working on a holiday (or an "in lieu of" holiday) is entitled to pay for the number of hours of the compressed work schedule for the employee on that day. A part-time employee prevented from working on a holiday is entitled to pay for the number of hours of the compressed work schedule on that day. When a holiday falls on a nonworkday of a part-time employee, there is no entitlement to pay or an "in lieu of" holiday. (See 5 CFR 610.406 and Comptroller General opinion B-217080, June 3, 1985.)
Excused Absence The amount of excused absence to be granted an employee covered by an FWS program should be based on his or her typical schedule. All compressed work schedules are fixed schedules. The regular agency practices applicable to administration of excused absence apply.
Temporary Duty The agency may allow an employee covered by an FWS program to continue the existing schedule, modify that schedule, or require him or her to follow the schedule used at the temporary work site. (Same as Flexible Work Schedules)
Travel Time spent in a travel status is considered to be hours of work only as provided in 5 CFR 550.112(g) or 5 U.S.C. 5544 (prevailing rate employees) for FLSA exempt employees, and as provided in 5 CFR 550.112(g) or 5 U.S.C. 5544 and 551.422 for nonexempt employees. Agencies may find it advisable to establish procedures to revert employees to standard fixed schedules when traveling. (Same as Flexible Work Schedules)
Application of Flexible Work Schedules in Unorganized Units Agencies may unilaterally install FWS programs in unorganized units. There is no requirement for a vote of affected employees. In an unorganized unit, a majority of affected employees must vote to be included in a CWS program. (See 5 U.S.C. 6127(b).)
Determining Hardships under Flexible Work Schedules Since FWS programs generally provide employees the flexibility to continue to work traditional schedules, the agency is not required to consider exclusion of an employee from the FWS program for personal hardship. An employee for whom a CWS program would impose a personal hardship may request to be excluded from the program. The request must be submitted to the agency in writing. The agency must determine whether a personal hardship exists. If so, the employee must be excepted from the CWS program or reassigned to the first position that meets the criteria in 5 U.S.C. 6127(b)(2)(B).

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Appendix B

Models of Flexible Work Schedules
 FlexitourGliding ScheduleVariable Day ScheduleVariable Week ScheduleMaxiFlex
Basic Work Requirement A full-time employee must work 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week, and 80 hours a biweekly pay period. The agency head determines the number of hours a part-time employee must work in a day, in a week, or in a biweekly pay period. (See Flexitour.) A full-time employee must work 40 hours a week. The agency head determines the number of hours a part-time employee must work in a week. A full-time employee must work 80 hours in a biweekly pay period. The agency head determines the number of hours a part-time employee must work in a biweekly pay period. (See Variable Week Schedule.)
Tour of Duty Agencies establish flexible hours surrounding core hours, which include a standard meal period. Agencies establish flexible and core hours. Gliding schedules provide for flexible time bands at the start and end of the workday and may also allow for flexible hours at midday (during the lunch break). Employees must work during core hours. (See Gliding Schedule.) (See Gliding Schedule.) (See Gliding Schedule.)
However, agencies may choose not to establish core hours on each workday, thus providing maximum flexibility for employees
Core Hours An employee must account for missed core hours (if permitted) with leave, credit hours, or compensatory time off. (See Flexitour.) (See Flexitour.) (See Flexitour.) (See Flexitour.)
Employees may work fewer than 10 days biweekly because of the absence of core hours on one of the normal workdays (e.g., "Flexible 5/4-9").
Overtime Work Overtime work is work in excess of 8 hours in a day or 40 hours in a workweek, ordered in advance by management. See 5 U.S.C. 6121(6). (See Flexitour.) (See Flexitour.) (See Flexitour.) (See Flexitour.)
Flexibility Employees select arrival and departure times subject to agency approval. (This results in a fixed schedule until the next selection period, as determined by the agency.) At the request of an employee, the agency may approve an adjusted arrival and departure time. Employees may vary arrival and departure times on a daily basis during the established flexible hours. (See Gliding Schedule.) An employee may also vary the length of the workday. An agency may limit the number of hours an employee may work on a daily basis. (See Variable Day Schedule.) An employee may also vary the length of the workweek. (See Variable Week Schedule.)

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Models of Flexible Work Schedules (Continued)

Flexitour Schedule

Flexitour Schedule: This graphic shows a flexitour schedule with flexible hours at 6 to 9 a.m. and 3 to 5 p.m., and core hours plus lunch period from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.

Gliding Schedule

Gliding Schedule: This graphic shows a variable day schedule with core hours (plus lunch period) from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Hours worked: 10 on Monday, 7 on Tuesday, 10 on Wednesday, 8 on Thursday, and 5 on Friday for a total of 40 hours worked weekly.

Variable Day Schedule

Variable Day Schedule:This graphic shows a variable day schedule with core hours (plus lunch period) from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Hours worked: 10 on Monday, 7 on Tuesday, 10 on Wednesday, 8 on Thursday, and 5 on Friday for a total of 40 hours worked weekly.

Variable Week Schedule - Week 1

Variable Week Schedule, Week 1: This graphic shows week 1 of a variable week schedule with core hours (plus lunch period) from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Hours worked: 10 on Monday, 9 on Tuesday, 10 on Wednesday, 8 on Thursday, and 8 on Friday for a total of 45 hours worked.

Variable Week Schedule - Week 2

Variable Week Schedule, Week 2: This graphic shows week 2 of a variable week schedule with core hours (plus lunch period) from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Hours worked: 7 on Monday, 8 on Tuesday, 8 on Wednesday, 6 on Thursday, and 8 on Friday for a total of 37 hours worked.

Maxiflex Schedule - Week 1

Maxiflex Schedule, Week 1: This graphic shows week 1 of a maxiflex schedule with core hours (plus lunch period) from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Hours worked: 10 on Monday, 9 on Tuesday, 10 on Wednesday, 8 on Thursday, and 8 on Friday for a total of 45 hours worked.

Maxiflex Schedule - Week 2

Maxiflex Schedule - Week 2

DescriptionHours
Total Hours Worked Biweekly 82
Basic Work Requirement 80
Remaining Credit Hours 2

Note:

These models typify the more common types of flexible work schedules. The flexitour and gliding schedule examples show daily work schedules. The variable day schedule example is a weekly schedule. The variable week schedule and maxiflex examples are biweekly work schedules. These models are not meant to be all inclusive. Agencies may develop schedules tailored to meet their specific needs.

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Appendix C

Models of Compressed Work Schedules
 Four-Day Work WeekThree-Day Work Week5/4-9 Compressed Plan
Basic Work Requirement A full-time employee must work 10 hours a day, 40 hours a week, and 80 hours a biweekly pay period. The agency head determines the number of hours a part-time employee must work in a 4-day workweek and the number of hours in a biweekly pay period. A full-time employee must work 13 hours and 20 minutes a day, 40 hours a week, and 80 hours a biweekly pay period. The agency head determines the number of hours a part-time employee must work in a 3-day workweek and the number of hours in a biweekly pay period. A full-time employee work eight 9-hour days and one 8-hour day for a total of 80 hours in a biweekly pay period. The agency head determines the number of hours a part-time employee must work in a 9-day biweekly pay period.
Tour of Duty The "tour of duty" is established by the agency and is limited to four 10-hour days. The "tour of duty" is established by the agency and is limited to three 13-hour and 20-minute days in a week and 80 hours in a biweekly pay period. The "tour of duty" is established by the agency and is less than 10 workdays in a biweekly pay period.
Overtime Work Overtime work is work ordered or approved in advance by management and is in excess of the compressed work schedule's basic work requirement. (See Four-Day Workweek.) (See Four-Day Workweek.)

Models of Compressed Work Schedules (Continued)
Four-Day Work WeekThree-Day Work Week5/4-9 Compressed Plan
Four-Day Work Week: This graphic shows a 4-day work week with core hours from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Ten hours are worked each day Monday through Thursday for a total of 40 hours worked weekly. Four-Day Work Week: This graphic shows a 4-day work week with core hours from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Ten hours are worked each day Monday through Thursday for a total of 40 hours worked weekly. 5/4-9 Compressed Plan: This graphic shows a 5/4-9 compressed schedule for two groups. Group A works 8 hours on Monday and 9 hours each day Tuesday through Friday during week 1. For week 2, Group A works 0 hours on Monday and 9 hours each day Tuesday through Friday. Group B works 0 hours on Monday and 9 hours each day Tuesday through Friday during week 1. For week 2, Group B works 8 hours on Monday and 9 hours each day Tuesday through Friday. Each group works 80 total hours.
Total Hours Worked Weekly = 40 Each group works 13 hours, 20 minutes per workday, for a total of 40 hours per week Total hours worked by Group A = 80
Total hours worked by Group B = 80

Note:

These models typify the more common types of compressed work schedules. They are not meant to be all inclusive. Agencies should develop schedules tailored to meet their specific needs.

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Appendix D

Flexifinder

To find the time an employee's workday ends, find the time he/she began the workday along the left-hand column of the grid; then along the top of the grid find the amount of time he/she spent in the midday flex band (for lunch and/or personal time). The point at which the Workday Starting Time row intersects the Midday Flex column is the Ending Time for an 8-hour day.

 Midday Flex Times
Workday Starting Time30 Min.35 Min.40 Min.45 Min.50 Min.55 Min.1 Hour1
Hr
05
1
Hr
10
1
Hr
15
1
Hr
20
1
Hr
25
1
Hr
30
1
Hr
35
1
Hr
40
1
Hr
45
1
Hr
50
1
Hr
55
2
Hrs.
Workday Ending Times
6:30 3:00 3:05 3:10 3:15 3:20 3:25 3:30 3:35 3:40 3:45 3:50 3:55 4:00 4:05 4:10 4:15 4:20 4:25 4:30
6:35 3:05 3:10 3:15 3:20 3:25 3:30 3:35 3:40 3:45 3:50 3:55 4:00 4:05 4:10 4:15 4:20 4:25 4:30 4:35
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